Grade 12 Chemistry Examination Prep

Organic Hormone balance

Basic Concepts:

Carbon restaurants: Straight restaurants and branched chains, Numbering of restaurants and twigs.

Carbon Bands: Cyclic Substances, Aromatic Ingredients

Types of Organic reactions:




Moisture build-up or condensation


Precisely what is organic biochemistry and biology? Carbon substances.

Methane CH4 Hexane C6 H14

Ethane C2H six Heptane C7 H16

Lp C3H 8 Octane C8 H18

Butane gas C4H10 Nonane C9H20

Pentane C five H12 Decane C1 0 H22

Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons


Cycloalkanes: Alkenes: Alkynes:

General method: Cn H2n General formula: Cn H2n General formula: Cn H2n -2

Haloalkanes: Alekanes: Alcohols:

Alkylhalides CnH2n+n " OH” group

F (Fluoro), Cl (Chloro), Br (Bromo), I (Iodo)

Other rules:

" Anes” - Not any double you possess.

" Enes”-At least One twice bond.

" Ynes”- At least one double bond.

" OH”- identity ends in " ol”

" DASAR rule”- Make an effort to make the chains in Minuscular order

" Cyclo”- In the event the chain is usually connected collectively it the name must start with Cyclo (If enclosed)

Chain need to start where there is most activity

Di, Tri, Tetra – For record elements once appearing more than once on a sequence

Methyl- Sole side chain off the main chain

Identity side restaurants by using " yl”- Methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc ..

CONCERN RULES- can be a set of rules that allow us to rank particular chemical highlights of a molecule on a scale of importance. Typically, molecules/groups that contain oxygen have a higher concern.

Cyclo groups-

Triangle: Cyclopropane

Square: Cyclobutane

Government: Cyclopentane

Hexagon: Cyclohexane


Isopropyl- a side sequence off of the key chain with a duel end -<

Isobutyl- \/<

Isopentyl- -/\<

Aromatic Hydrocarbons:

Does not react like an unsaturated molecule.






Addition Vs Alternative:

Substitution reactions occur when molecules contain saturated chains (No twice or multiple bonds) or bear a great aromatic band. (usually with UV light/Heat)

Free radicals: an atom or molecule with an unpaired electron.

Aromatics: alternative no the aromatic ring requires harsh conditions and generally a catalyst.

Combustion reactions:

Visible merchandise (soot, discolored flame, smoke cigarettes, residue) intended for incomplete reactions. CH & O2 > > Incomplete> > CO + CO2 + INGESTING WATER

Conditions for any complete burning would be that they need to produce CO2 and WATER after they end combusting ( Also produce Blue flame)

CHOH & ( excess) O2 > > Complete> > CO2 + WATER


Vital that you state whether it was Addition or substitution

Ex lover. Halogenation by simply addition

Hydrohalogenation: Addition of HBr, HCl, etc ..

Halogenation- Addition of Cl2, Br2, F2, And so forth.

Hydration: Add H2O

Dehydration- Remove WATER

Combustion reactions

Oxidation – Add WOW with a catalyst CrO3, HcrO4, NaCr2 O7, K2 Cr2 O7, O3, KmnO4.

Alcohol Nomenclature:

Molecules containing in least one particular hydroxyl group (OH ).

The OH is always presented the lowest quantity possible and must be as part of the bigger sequence.





Synthesis of Ethers:

Ethers standard formula: R-O-R

The largest carbon string is considered the parent chain; the shorter sequence is given the suffix " oxy” to point the presence of air.

Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes

Addition reactions:

During these reactions, all of us 'Add' fresh atoms towards the double bonds/triple bonds until the carbon provides 4 provides.

Hydration Reaction example:

*Heating an alcoholic beverages can invert the water balance reaction= lacks reaction.

Normal water is very stable so we must encourage it to break apart and add for the double connection; and chemical p catalyst can be added.

The OH group is easily changed into other functional groups (Ketones, aldehydes, ethers.... )

Hydrogenation example:

Hydrohalogenation example:

Halogenation example:

Markovnikov regulation:

In addition reactions involving unsymmetrical...

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